1. Another way to show distance is aerial perspective. By painting the mountains farthest away in less detail and partly hidden by clouds, this Chinese artist created the illusion of distance. Magritte also used aerial perspective, painting the background in bluish shades and with less precision.
Wang Shih-min, Landscape after Huang Kung-wang, 1670, ink and colors on paper, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, gift of Ruth and Bruce Dayton
2. Before the Renaissance, in medieval times, artists had different aims. The designers of medieval textiles like this one did not use mathematical perspective but instead crowded the figures into a space that seems too small to hold them all.
Flemish, Esther and Ahasuerus, 1460-85, wool, silk, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, gift of Mrs. C. J. Martin for the Charles Jairus Martin Memorial Collection
3. Magritte also used geometry to create a convincingly solid cylindrical tower with a cone-shaped top.